Multi-Strategy Fusion for Enhancing Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)




K-Nearest Neighbors. Localization. Neural Network. RSSI. Wireless Sensor Networks.


 Localization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) plays a crucial role in various applications that
rely on spatial information. This paper introduces the Multi-Strategy Fusion for Localization model, which
integrates optimization techniques (ABO, DSA, EHO, and KNN) and neurocomputing techniques (BP, MTLSTM,
BILSTM, and Autoencoder) to enhance localization accuracy in WSNs. The work is divided into three phases: data
collection, model building, and implementation. The first and the last are carried out in the field, while the second
is made in the laboratory. The three phases involve a few general steps. The (1) Data Collection Phase includes
four steps: (a) Deploy three anchors at known locations, forming an equilateral triangle. (b) Each anchor starts
broadcasting its location. (c) Using an ordinary sensor, the RSSI of each anchor is measured at every possible
location where the signal of the three anchors can reach it. (d) Data is logged to a CSV file containing the
measuring location and the RSSI of the three anchors and their locations. The Model Building Phase includes (a)
preprocessing of the collected data, and (b) building a model based on optimization and optimization techniques.
The Implementation phase includes five steps: (a) Convoy sensors to the target field. (b) Manually deploy anchors
according to the distribution plan. (c) Randomly deploy ordinary sensors. (d) Each ordinary sensor starts in
initialization mode. When receiving a signal from three anchors, a sensor computes its location and stores it for
future use. When a sensor has its location, it turns into operational mode. (e) A sensor in the operational mode
attaches the location with sensed data each time it sends it to the sink or neighbors according to routing protocols
(routing is not considered in this study). ABO and DSA optimization techniques show similar performance, with
lower Mean Squared Error (MSE) values compared to EHO and KNN. ABO and DSA also have similar Mean
Absolute Error (MAE) values, indicating lesser average absolute errors. BP emerges as the top performer among
the neurocomputing techniques, demonstrating better accuracy with lower MSE and MAE values compared to
MTLSTM, BILSTM, and Autoencoder. Finally; The Multi-Strategy Fusion for Localization model offers an
effective approach to enhance localization accuracy in wireless sensor networks. The paper focuses on addressing
the correlation between wireless device positions and signal intensities to improve the localization process. The
obtained results and provided justification emphasize the significance and value of the model in the field of
localization in WSNs. The model represents a valuable contribution to the development of localization techniques
and improving their accuracy to meet the needs of various applications. The model opens up opportunities for its
utilization in diverse domains such as environmental monitoring, healthcare, smart cities, and disaster
management, enhancing its practical applications and practical significance.


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How to Cite

M. Abed Salman and M. . A. Mahdi, “Multi-Strategy Fusion for Enhancing Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)”, Iraqi Journal For Computer Science and Mathematics, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 299–326, Feb. 2024.
DOI: 10.52866/ijcsm.2024.05.01.021
Published: 2024-02-18