Iraqi Journal For Computer Science and Mathematics https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM <table class="data" style="font-size: 0.875rem; height: 329px;" width="561" bgcolor="#f0f0f0"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%"><strong>Journal title</strong></td> <td width="80%"><strong>Iraqi Journal for Computer Science and Mathematics </strong></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%"><strong>Indexing</strong></td> <td width="80%"><strong><a href="https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/21101124068">Scopus</a></strong></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%"> <p><strong>Online ISSN</strong></p> <p><strong>Print ISSN</strong></p> </td> <td width="80%"> <p><strong>2788-7421</strong></p> <p><strong> <span class="fontstyle0">2958-0544</span> <br /></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%"><strong>Frequency</strong></td> <td width="80%"><strong>4 issues per year</strong></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%"> <p><strong>DOI</strong></p> </td> <td width="80%"> <p><strong>prefix 10.52866</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%"> <p><strong>Editor in Chief </strong></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Editor in Chief </strong></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Managing Editor</strong></p> </td> <td width="80%"> <p><strong><em><a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6374-3560">Assist. Prof. Dr.Mohammad Aljanabi</a>, Full time editor at Iraqi Journal for Computer Science and Mathematics, College of Education, Al-Iraqia University, Iraq </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em> Email:mohammad.khaleel@aliraqia.edu.iq</em></strong></p> <p><a href="http://as-albahri.net/Career.html"><strong>Assoc. Prof.Ahmed Shihab Albahr</strong></a><strong><a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=VOveIgkAAAAJ&amp;hl=en">i</a>, Iraqi Comission for Computers and Informatics, Iraq</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Email: ahmed.bahri1978@iips.icci.edu.iq</em></strong></p> <p><strong><a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8312-2289">Assoc. Prof.Mohd Arfian Ismail</a>, Faculty of Computing, College of Computing and Applied Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia </strong></p> <p><strong><em>Email: arfian@ump.edu.my</em></strong></p> <p> </p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%"><strong>Organized by</strong></td> <td width="80%"><strong>Department of Computer, College of Education, Al-Iraqia University, Iraq</strong></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%"><strong>Citation Analysis</strong></td> <td width="80%"><strong><a href="https://www-scopus-com.ezproxy.ump.edu.my/results/results.uri?sort=plf-f&amp;src=s&amp;st1=Iraqi+Journal+For+Computer+Science+and+Mathematics&amp;sid=79923ed8f98395bd8143dc21bf0c114b&amp;sot=b&amp;sdt=b&amp;sl=60&amp;s=SRCTITLE%28Iraqi+Journal+For+Computer+Science+and+Mathematics%29&amp;origin=searchbasic&amp;editSaveSearch=&amp;yearFrom=Before+1960&amp;yearTo=Present">Scopus</a> | <a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=VnZI994AAAAJ&amp;hl=en&amp;authuser=1">Google Scholar</a></strong></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%"><strong>Acceptance Rate:</strong></td> <td width="80%"><strong>5%</strong></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%"><strong>Review Speed:</strong></td> <td width="80%"><strong>90 days </strong></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td width="30%"> </td> <td width="80%"> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div> </div> <div><strong>Before submission</strong>,<br />You have to make sure that your paper is prepared using the<strong> <a href="https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/libraryFiles/downloadPublic/12">IJCSM paper Template</a>, or <a href="https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/libraryFiles/downloadPublic/16">Latex Template </a></strong>has been carefully proofread and polished and conformed to the<a href="https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/guide"> author guidelines</a>.<strong> </strong><br /> <div id="homepageImage"> </div> </div> <div id="tabs"><strong>Online Submissions</strong></div> <div> <ul> <li>Already have a username/password for Iraqi Journal for Computer Science and Mathematics? <a href="https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/login"><strong>GO TO LOGIN</strong></a> </li> <li>Need a username/password? <strong><a href="https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/user/register?source=">GO TO REGISTRATION </a></strong></li> </ul> </div> <div>Registration and login are required to submit items online and to check the status of current submissions. </div> <div> <p> </p> </div> en-US ijcsm.editor@gmail.com (Dr. Mohammad Aljanabi) ijcsm.editor@gmail.com (Dr. Mohammad Aljanabi) Sat, 02 Dec 2023 04:20:30 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.15 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Structural Reliability and Optimization Using Differential Geometric Approaches https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/940 <p>This study investigates how differential geometry ideas can be used to effectively carry out structural optimization and reliability analysis. Strong mathematical representations and methods for examining intricate surfaces and forms are provided by differential geometry. The basic ideas of differential geometry, such as tensors, manifolds, and curvature, are initially introduced in the work. Then, to account for ambiguities in the geometry, the probability theory in tangent spaces is developed. As a result, structural reliability can be determined using propagating uncertainty. To enable reliability-based design optimization, differential geometry representations are linked with optimization techniques. The proposed differential geometry-based approach is applied in a number of case studies to trusses, airplane wings, car bodies, and ship hulls. The outcomes show a significant increase in productivity and scalability compared to conventional finite element methods. The article offers new tools for dealing with uncertainty.</p> Saad Abbas Abed, Mona Ghassan, Shaemaa Qaes, Mahmood S. Fiadh , Zaid Amer Mohammed Copyright (c) 2024 Saad Abbas Abed, Mona Ghassan, Shaemaa Qaes, Mahmood S. Fiadh , Zaid Amer Mohammed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/940 Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Predicting Diabetes Disease Occurrence Using Logistic Regression: An Early Detection Approach https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/987 <p> <span class="fontstyle0">Diabetes disease is prevalent worldwide, and predicting its progression is crucial. Several model have been<br />proposed to predict such disease. Those models only determine the disease label, leaving the likelihood of developing the disease<br />unclear. Proposing a model for predicting the progression of disease becomes essential. Therefore, this article proposes a logistic<br />regression model to anticipate the likelihood of Diabetes syndrome incidence. The model exploit capabilities of logistic regression<br />by using sigmoid function. The model's performance was evaluated using the Pima Indians Diabetes dataset and demonstrated<br />high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The prediction accuracy rate was 77.6%, with a sensitivity of 72.4%, specificity of<br />79.6%, Type I Error of 27.6%, and Type II Error of 20.4%. Furthermore, the model indicates the feasibility of using laboratory<br />tests, such as Pregnancies, Glucose, Blood Pressure, BMI, and DiabetesPedigreeFunction, to predict disease progress. The<br />proposed model can aid patients and physicians in understanding the disease's progression and implementing timely interventions</span> </p> Ahmad Abdalrada, Ali Fahem Neamah, Hayder Murad Copyright (c) 2024 Ahmad Abdalrada, Ali Fahem Neamah, Hayder Murad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/987 Sun, 28 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Novel Method for Hill Cipher Encryption and Decryption Using Gaussian Integers Implemented in Banking Systems https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/887 <p style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: #252525;">Cryptographic tools like Hill's encryption algorithm protect digital data. In this work, we present a novel Hill cipher security method that utilizes Gaussian integers from number theory. Using these intriguing mathematical entities to disguise plaintext values dramatically boosts assault resistance and duration. This research includes a three-pass protocol for encryption and decryption without key exchange, ensuring a safe, efficient, and dependable solution. Pandas is used for efficient data processing, and Numpy for computational tasks, notably</span> matrices. <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: #252525;">Hill cipher-based encryption and decryption can be utilized in real life. It also demonstrates how to save Pandas DataFrame data to Excel. This strategy assures progress in cryptography. Uniquely designed for banking, it emphasizes its applicability and possible influence on present financial systems.</span></p> Saba Salman, Yasmin Makki Mohialden , Abbas Abdulhameed , Nadia Mahmood Hussien Copyright (c) 2024 Saba Salman, Yasmin Makki Mohialden , Abbas Abdulhameed , Nadia Mahmood Hussien https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/887 Wed, 07 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The optimal scaling factor based on Secant Method for image watermarking using the hybrid DTCWT-DCT domain https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/945 <p>This paper proposes an implementation of the secant optimization method on the watermark<br />embedding in DTCWT domain. An objective function combining PSNR and NC (The Normalized Correlation)<br />values calculated for a set of common attacks is used in the optimization process. The aim is to enhance the tradeoff between robustness and imperceptibility against the various image processing attacks via an automatic and<br />careful selection of the scaling factor using optimization. The watermark is inserted in the high energy bands of<br />DCT-transformed sub-vectors, which were generated from the DTCWT coefficient decomposition of the host<br />image. Experimental results performed on a set of 512×512 greyscale images, show better results than the<br />existing schemes for most common image attacks such as compression, low-pass filtering and noise addition.</p> Mohamed lebcir, Suryanti Awang , Ali Benziane Copyright (c) 2024 Mohamed lebcir, Suryanti Awang , Ali Benziane https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/945 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Early Warning of Financial Failure for Iraqi Banks Based on Robust Adaptive Lasso Logistic Regression https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/918 <p> <span class="fontstyle0">It is well known that there are many mathematical financial failure models that have been proposed<br />in the financial literature for specific stock markets. Some researchers are not aware these mathematical models<br />were constructed to be fitted for that market data, not for other markets. Iraq stock market exchange is one of these<br />markets in which the researchers used imported models such as Kida, Sherrod, Altman, and others to predict<br />financial failure. Therefore, the development of a financial failure warning model for banks has become very<br />crucial for the Iraqi bank sector in the stock market exchange. Unfortunately, there is no clear information about<br />the financial failure of Iraqi banks as a response variable, and the financial indicators contain outliers. The<br />objective of this paper is to propose an algorithm to know the performance of efficient and inefficient banks based<br />on their indicators during specific time periods. The output of this algorithm will be considered as response<br />variables. Then, a weighted adaptive lasso logistic regression algorithm that has a high breakdown point is used to<br />tackle outliers’ problem. Thirteen banks have been chosen as the most traded during the period (2010-2017), and<br />for each bank (27) financial indicators were collected. Our proposed model is compared with adaptive lasso<br />logistic regression by using Deviance, Misclassification, Area Under Curve, Mean Square Errors, and Mean<br />Absolute Errors. Consequently, the results showed that the weighted Adaptive Lasso Logistic Regression model is<br />more robust and relevant than others to be a financial model to warn of the failure of the banks in Iraq's stock<br />market.</span> </p> Aqeel Jaafar Abbas Alshareefi, Hassan Uraibi Copyright (c) 2024 Aqeel Jaafar Abbas Alshareefi, Hassan Uraibi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/918 Sun, 28 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Early Detection of Cardiovascular Disease Utilizing Machine Learning Techniques: Evaluating the Predictive Capabilities of Seven Algorithms https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1005 <p>Heart disease is the leading cause of death in developed countries, as it causes many deaths annually. Despite the availability of effective treatments, heart disease remains a significant challenge to public health, so early detection is essential in enhancing patient outcomes and reducing mortality. Artificial intelligence seeks to help physicians make the right decisions about a patient's health condition. In this regard, the authors decided to utilize machine learning techniques (k-nearest neighbor, decision tree, linear regression, support vector machine, naïve bayes, multilayer perceptron, random forest) to contribute to the classification of the heart disease dataset, where it is determined whether a person is suffering or not. After that, the execution of all techniques will be measured, and the accuracy of each technique will be compared to determine the most suitable performer. The public dataset is organized from the UC Irvine machine learning repository and have significantly different characteristics. The dataset will be divided such that 80% of the data is designated for training and 20% is designated for testing. This article concluded that the adequate performance is for the multilayer perceptron technique, as it gained an accuracy of more than 88%, while the poor performance is for the decision tree technique, as it gained an accuracy of more than 79%.</p> Maad Mijwil, Alaa K. Faieq, Mohammad Aljanabi Copyright (c) 2024 Maad Mijwil https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1005 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An Automated Prostate-cancer Prediction System (APPS) Based on Advanced DFO-ConGA2L Model using MRI Imaging Technique https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1400 <p>The prostate cancer is a deadly form of cancer that assassinates a significant number of men due of its mediocre identification process. Images from people with cancer include important and intricate details that are difficult for conventional diagnostic methods to extract. This work establishes a novel Automated Prostate-cancer Prediction System (APPS) model for the goal of detecting and classifying prostate cancer utilizing MRI imaging sequences.&nbsp; The supplied medical image is normalized using a Coherence Diffusion Filtering (CDFilter) approach for improved quality and contrast. The appropriate properties are also extracted from the normalized image using the morphological and texture feature extraction approach, which helps to increase the classifier's accuracy. In order to train the classifier, the most important properties are also selected utilizing the cutting-edge Dragon Fly Optimized Feature Selection (DFO-FS) algorithm. Using this method greatly improves the classifier's overall disease diagnosis performance in less time and with faster processing. More specifically, the provided MRI input data are used to categorize the prostate cancer-affected and healthy tissues using the new Convoluted Gated Axial Attention Learning Model (ConGA<sub>2</sub>L) based on the selected features. This study compares and validates the performance of the APPS model by looking at several aspects using publicly available prostate cancer data.</p> Sathesh Abraham Leo E, Nattar Kannan K Copyright (c) 2024 Sathesh Abraham Leo E, Nattar Kannan K https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1400 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 On (n,D)- quasi Operators https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1163 <p>T <span class="fontstyle0">Through the article, we will provide an entirely novel type of quasi operators base on the concept of<br /></span><span class="fontstyle2">D </span><span class="fontstyle0">razin inverse in Operator theory which is named (</span><span class="fontstyle3">n</span><span class="fontstyle4">,D</span><span class="fontstyle0">) -quasi operators on the Hilbert spaces, also we explain the<br />sum, product, and other features of these classes are discussed. and restriction via some necessary conditions have<br />been holds in order to obtain these operations, in addition that we investigate the scalar and power of this concept,<br />moreover we submit prove of the Tensor product and direct product of (</span><span class="fontstyle3">n</span><span class="fontstyle4">,D</span><span class="fontstyle0">)-quasi operators.</span> </p> salim dawood mohsen Copyright (c) 2024 salim dawood mohsen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1163 Sun, 28 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Detecting Arabic Misinformation Using an Attention Mechanism-Based Model https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1100 <p>The proliferation of fake news or misinformation, commonly referred to as fake news, has a significant effect on a global scale, as it is aimed at influencing public opinion as well as crowd decision-making. It is therefore crucial to verify the truthfulness of news before it is released to the public. Today, most studies on early detection of Arabic misinformation rely on machine learning methods and transformer-based models. Therefore, in the current study, we used deep learning techniques to propose a model for detecting Arabic misinformation by leveraging the contextual features of news article content. The proposed model was built based on BiLSTM and the attention mechanism. To extract features from Arabic text, we utilized a pre-trained AraBERT model, which generates contextual embeddings from text, then are fed to the BiLSTM layer as input features. Moreover, we investigated the effectiveness of the attention mechanism in improving the overall performance of the model by configuring model architecture to exclude the attention mechanism and comparing the results. Two datasets were utilized to train and evaluate the proposed model, namely, the AraNews and ArCovid19-Rumors datasets. Experimental results showed that the proposed model outperformed other existing models, achieving an accuracy of 0.96 on the ArCovid19-Rumors dataset and 0.90 on the AraNews dataset. This remarkable performance was due to the capability of the attention mechanism to enhance the overall performance, allowing the model to capture the relationship between textual features.</p> Bashar AlEsawi, Mohammed Haqi Al-Tai Copyright (c) 2024 Bashar AlEsawi, Mohammed Haqi Al-Tai https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1100 Sun, 11 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Routing Techniques in Network-On-Chip Based Multiprocessor-System-on-Chip for IOT: A Systematic Review https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1405 <p>Routing techniques (RTs) play a critical role in modern computing systems that use network-on-chip (NoC) communication infrastructure within multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) platforms. RTs contribute greatly to the successful performance of NoC-based MPSoCs due to traffic congestion avoidance, quality-of-service assurance, fault handling and optimisation of power usage. This paper outlines our efforts to catalogue RTs, limitations, recommendations and key challenges associated with these RTs used in NoC-based MPSoC systems for the IoT domain. We utilized the PRISMA method to collect data from credible resources, including IEEE Xplore ®, ScienceDirect, Association for Computing Machinery and Web of Science. Out of the 906 research papers reviewed, only 51 were considered relevant to the investigation on NoC RTs. The study addresses issues related to NoC routing and suggests new approaches for in-package data negotiating. In addition, it gives an overview of the recent research on routing strategies and numerous algorithms that can be used for NoC-based MPSoCs. The literature analysis addresses current obstacles and delineates potential future avenues, recommendations, and challenges analyzing techniques to assess performance utilizing metrics within the TCCM framework.</p> yousif muhsen, Nor Azura Husin, Maslina Binti Zolkepli, Noridayu Manshor, Ahmed Abbas Jasim Al-Hchaimi, A. S. Albahri Copyright (c) 2024 yousif muhsen, Nor Azura Husin, Maslina Binti Zolkepli, Noridayu Manshor, Ahmed Abbas Jasim Al-Hchaimi, A. S. Albahri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1405 Sun, 28 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Review Of Text Mining Techniques: Trends, and Applications In Various Domains https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/905 <p> <span class="fontstyle0">Text mining, a subfield of natural language processing (NLP), has received considerable attention in recent years<br />due to its ability to extract valuable insights from large volumes of unstructured textual data. This review aims to<br />provide a comprehensive evaluation of the applicability of text mining techniques across various domains and<br />industries.<br />The review starts off with a dialogue of the basic ideas and methodologies that are concerned with textual content<br />mining together with preprocessing, feature extraction, and machine learning algorithms.<br />Furthermore, this survey highlights the challenges faced at some stage in implementing textual content mining<br />strategies. Additionally, the review explores emerging tendencies and possibilities in text-mining research. It<br />discusses advancements in deep learning models for text evaluation, integration with different AI technologies like<br />image or speech recognition for multimodal analysis, utilization of domain-unique ontologies or information graphs<br />for more desirable information of textual facts, and incorporation of explainable AI strategies to improve<br />interpretability. The findings from this overview are analyzed to identify common developments and patterns in text<br />mining packages across extraordinary domain names.<br />The consequences of this paper will advantage researchers by means of imparting updated expertise of modern<br />practices in textual content mining. Additionally, it will manual practitioners in selecting suitable strategies for their<br />unique application domain names while addressing capacity-demanding situations.</span> </p> hiba Aleqabie, Mais Saad Sfoq, Rand Abdulwahid Albeer, Enaam Hadi Abd Copyright (c) 2024 hiba Aleqabie, Mais Saad Sfoq, Rand Abdulwahid Albeer, Enaam Hadi Abd https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/905 Sun, 28 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Offline Handwritten Signature Identification based on Hybrid Features and Proposed Deep Model https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/893 <p>Handwritten signature identification is the process of identifying the true identity of an individual by analyzing their signature. This is an important task in applications such as financial transactions, legal documents, and biometric systems. Various techniques have been developed for signature identification, including feature-based methods and machine learning-based methods. This paper proposes an authentic signature identification method based on integrating static (off-line) signature data and proposed deep-based model, this is done by fused three types of signature features, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) as appearance-based features, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) as frequency-features, and Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) as texture-features. Then, the fused features are inputted to the proposed deep-based model of 25 layers for identifying each person. For experiments, we have used three datasets: Our own private collected dataset, called SigArab, and two public datasets called SigComp11 and CEDAR respectively. The proposed deep model achieves 99.23%, 100%, 100% accuracy on SigArab, CEDAR and SigComp2011 datasets.</p> Zainab Hashim, Hanaa Mohsin, Ahmed Alkhayyat Copyright (c) 2024 Zainab Hashim, Hanaa Mohsin, Ahmed Alkhayyat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/893 Wed, 07 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Improvement of Network Reliability by Hybridization of the Penalty Technique Based on Metaheuristic Algorithms https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/867 <p> <span class="fontstyle0">In this study, a network created by converting the Petri net into a network for shutdown system, by calculating<br />a network’s nonlinear reliability polynomial by splitting the network into two, each having a source node and an<br />terminal node. This the procedure converts the system into two parallel-series block diagrams that are connected in<br />a series. The metaheuristic algorithm using the honey badger algorithm (HBA) and Dwarf Mongoose Optimization<br />Algorithm (DMO) have been used to improve the problem for the shutdown network hybridizing these algorithms<br />employing the penalty method, we will obtained the (PFMHBA, PFMDMO) algorithms. Thereafter, we compared<br />the results of the use of the hybridization technique with the results of the process that does not use this technique. The<br />objective of this comparison was to ascertain whether the use of hybridization makes the results increasing reliable,<br />reducing cost, and shortening the duration of implementation.</span> </p> Roaa fadhil, Zahir Hassan Copyright (c) 2024 Roaa fadhil, Zahir Hassan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/867 Sun, 28 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Review of Machine Learning Techniques Utilised in Self-Driving Cars https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/904 <p>Science and technology researchers are currently focused on the creation of self-driving cars. This can have a profound effect on social and economic progress; self- driving vehicles can help reduce auto accidents dramatically and enhance the quality of life of people the world over. Self-driving cars have had a tremendous increase in popularity in the recent past because of artificial intelligence development. However, there is a lot of research work to be done to manufacture fully-automated cars because a self-driving carshas tto be able to sense its environment and operate without human involvement. A human passenger is not required to take control of the vehicle at any time, nor are they required to be present in the vehicle at all.</p> <p>Currently, self-driving cars are still at level 3 and are not allowed ply the roads due to many challenges which usually cause blurred images, including irregular roads, weather factors (rain and fog).</p> <p>This paper is a review study on self-driving cars, and will be examining the obstacles that self-driving cars face, as well as how they might overcome them. The paper will provide the researchers with pieces of information about self-driving cars, the challenges they face, the recent methods used to overcome these challenges, and the advantage, disadvantage, and accuracy of these methods. The paper aims to encourage researchers to work on solving the problems that inhibit the evolution of self-driving vehicles.</p> Zahraa Salah Dhaif, Nidhal K. El Abbadi Copyright (c) 2024 Zahraa Salah Dhaif, Nidhal K. El Abbadi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/904 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Multi-Strategy Fusion for Enhancing Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1170 <p> <span class="fontstyle0">Localization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) plays a crucial role in various applications that<br />rely on spatial information. This paper introduces the Multi-Strategy Fusion for Localization model, which<br />integrates optimization techniques (ABO, DSA, EHO, and KNN) and neurocomputing techniques (BP, MTLSTM,<br />BILSTM, and Autoencoder) to enhance localization accuracy in WSNs. The work is divided into three phases: data<br />collection, model building, and implementation. The first and the last are carried out in the field, while the second<br />is made in the laboratory. The three phases involve a few general steps. The (1) Data Collection Phase includes<br />four steps: (a) Deploy three anchors at known locations, forming an equilateral triangle. (b) Each anchor starts<br />broadcasting its location. (c) Using an ordinary sensor, the RSSI of each anchor is measured at every possible<br />location where the signal of the three anchors can reach it. (d) Data is logged to a CSV file containing the<br />measuring location and the RSSI of the three anchors and their locations. The Model Building Phase includes (a)<br />preprocessing of the collected data, and (b) building a model based on optimization and optimization techniques.<br />The Implementation phase includes five steps: (a) Convoy sensors to the target field. (b) Manually deploy anchors<br />according to the distribution plan. (c) Randomly deploy ordinary sensors. (d) Each ordinary sensor starts in<br />initialization mode. When receiving a signal from three anchors, a sensor computes its location and stores it for<br />future use. When a sensor has its location, it turns into operational mode. (e) A sensor in the operational mode<br />attaches the location with sensed data each time it sends it to the sink or neighbors according to routing protocols<br />(routing is not considered in this study). ABO and DSA optimization techniques show similar performance, with<br />lower Mean Squared Error (MSE) values compared to EHO and KNN. ABO and DSA also have similar Mean<br />Absolute Error (MAE) values, indicating lesser average absolute errors. BP emerges as the top performer among<br />the neurocomputing techniques, demonstrating better accuracy with lower MSE and MAE values compared to<br />MTLSTM, BILSTM, and Autoencoder. Finally; The Multi-Strategy Fusion for Localization model offers an<br />effective approach to enhance localization accuracy in wireless sensor networks. The paper focuses on addressing<br />the correlation between wireless device positions and signal intensities to improve the localization process. The<br />obtained results and provided justification emphasize the significance and value of the model in the field of<br />localization in WSNs. The model represents a valuable contribution to the development of localization techniques<br />and improving their accuracy to meet the needs of various applications. The model opens up opportunities for its<br />utilization in diverse domains such as environmental monitoring, healthcare, smart cities, and disaster<br />management, enhancing its practical applications and practical significance.</span> </p> Mahdi Abed Salman, Muhammed A. Mahdi Copyright (c) 2024 Mahdi Abed Salman, Muhammed A. Mahdi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1170 Sun, 18 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Hybrid Model for Motor Imagery Biometric Identification https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/870 <p>Biometric systems are a continuously evolving and promising technological domain that can be used in automatic systems for the unique and efficient identification and authentication of individuals without necessitating users to carry or remember any physical tokens or passwords, in contrast to traditional methods such as password IDs. Biometrics are biological measurements or physical characteristics that can be used to ascertain and validate the identity of individuals. Recently, considerable interest has emerged in exploiting brain activity as a biometric identifier in automatic recognition systems, particularly focusing on data acquired through electroencephalography (EEG). Multiple research endeavors have indeed confirmed the presence of discriminative characteristics within brain signals recorded while performing specific cognitive tasks. However, EEG signals are inherently complex due to their nonstationary and high-dimensional properties, thus demanding careful consideration during both the feature extraction and classification processes. This study applied a hybridization technique integrating a pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN) with a classical classifier and the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) spectrum. We used a hybrid model to decode two-class motor imagery (MI) signals for mobile biometric authentication tasks, which include subject identification and lock and unlock classification. To this purpose, nine potential classifiers (mostly classification algorithms) were utilized to build nine distinct hybrid models, with the ultimate goal of selecting the most effective one. Practically, six experiments were conducted in the experimental part of this study. The first experiment aims to develop a hybrid model for biometric authentication tasks. To do this, nine possible classifiers (mostly classification algorithms) were used to build nine hybrid models. It can be seen that the RF-VGG model achieved better performance compared with other models. Therefore, it was chosen to be utilized for mobile biometric authentication. The fourth experiment is to apply the RF-VGG model for doing the lock and unlock classification process, and their mean accuracy is 97.50%. Consequently, the fifth experiment was conducted to validate the RF-VGG model for the lock and unlock task, and their mean accuracy was 97.40%. Practically, the sixth experiment was to verify the RF-VGG model for the lock and unlock task over another dataset (unseen data), and their accuracy is 94.4%. It can be deduced that the hybrid model appraises the capability of decoding the MI signal for the left and right hand. Therefore, the RF-VGG model can contribute to the BCI-MI community by facilitating the deployment of the mobile biometric authentication task for (the subject identification and the lock and unlock classification).</p> Rasha A.Aljanabi, Z.T. Al-Qaysi , M.A.Ahmed , Mahmood M. Salih Copyright (c) 2023 Rasha A.Aljanabi, Z.T. Al-Qaysi , M.A.Ahmed , Mahmood M. Salih https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/870 Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Integrating Artificial Intelligence in Public Relations and Media: A Bibliometric Analysis of Emerging Trends and Influences https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1598 <p>Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in public relations and media is an emerging interdisciplinary research domain warranting greater attention. This study presents the first bibliometric analysis of recent literature at the nexus of AI, public relations, and media. Publications from 2018-2023 were retrieved from Scopus and analyzed to uncover productivity, impact, collaborations, and topics. Results showed rising annual outputs with over 2000 articles published in 2021, confirming intensifying research activity. Recent publications also demonstrated higher citation impact, indicating their contemporary influence. Prolific authors were predominantly China-based, while the US led overall production. China, Western nations, and India dominated but opportunities exist to improve geographic diversity. Initial activity focused on justifying AI's value, evolving to technical applications for social media analytics, predictive modeling, and content creation. International collaborations centered around Western regions, though China's partnerships increased. This quantitative intelligence provides a benchmark to inform future work in this high-potential domain. Bibliometric monitoring should continue as the discourse progresses. Broader participation from underrepresented stakeholders is needed to responsibly shape AI integration in public relations and media.</p> Akhmed Kaleel, Mohammed Shukri Alomari Copyright (c) 2024 Akhmed Kaleel, Mohammed Shukri Alomari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/1598 Tue, 02 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Bitcoin Layer Two Scaling Solutions: Lightening Payment Channels Network Comprehensive Review, Mechanisms, Challenges, Open Issues and Future Research Directions https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/873 <p>Blockchain technology era is triggered due to current advancement in the decentralized paradigms via facilitating secure collaboration among untrusted entities consequently superseding the necessity for the trusted third parties’ existence. Notwithstanding its potential, blockchain scalability faces severe limitations such as low throughput, high fees, and confirmation time latency. Several scaling solutions have been proposed, including layer one solutions that substantially require fundamentally amending blockchain underlying infrastructure resulted in further scalability complications. Layer two solutions, specifically Lightning Network, is a successful cryptographic layer built atop of the Bitcoin blockchain that aims to alleviate these implications by deporting transaction processing outside blockchain while ensuring security and consensus inherited from blockchain without compromising its infrastructure. Payment channels form the core of the lightning network, facilitating fast and secure transactions between participants. However, the network encounters substantial obstacles associated with transaction amounts that exceed the current channel capacity, leading to payment failures and limiting its effectiveness. Payment Channel Networks (PCN) have been risen as an evolved replacement that solves payment channel’s issues, seeking to enhance transaction throughput and reduce confirmation delays by solving limited capacities shortages. This paper thoroughly examines PCN efficiency impacting factors that hinder its current adoption growth and avoiding its widespread employment. Additionally, existing solutions are reviewed and categorized based on the PCN building architecture. The research concludes by outlining potential research avenues and future directions to improve the efficiency and practicality of the Lightning Network PCN. This research contribution aids the advent of blockchain layer two technology and participates in its integration into real-world applications.</p> Hasan Falah hasan, Mohd Najwadi Bin Yusoff , Shams Mhmood Abd Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Hasan Falah hasan, Mohd Najwadi Bin Yusoff , Shams Mhmood Abd Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/873 Tue, 02 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Artificial Intelligence in Education: Mathematics Teachers’ Perspectives, Practices and Challenges https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/890 <p> Efforts have been made to include artificial intelligence (AI) in teaching and learning; nevertheless,<br />the successful deployment of new instructional technology depends on the attitudes of the teachers who conduct<br />the lesson. Few scholars have researched teachers' perspectives on AI use due to a general lack of expertise on how<br />it can be used in the classroom, as well as a lack of specific knowledge about what AI-adopted tools would be like.<br />This study investigated mathematics teachers’ perceptions of implemented AI systems and applications in Abu<br />Dhabi Emirate schools. The sample study consists of 580 male and female math teachers from public and private<br />schools across three educational regions in Abu Dhabi selected based on several qualifications and experiences.<br />The research followed the descriptive analytical approach due to its suitability to the study’s context. The results<br />revealed that AI could be used as an educational tool to facilitate teaching and develop students’ performance by<br />including AI systems and applications in the curricula. They increased motivation for learning, encouraging<br />challenge, competition, and suspense among students and considering their differences. The results also showed<br />the most critical challenges that math teachers face in applying AI systems and applications, the most prominent of<br />which are the need to exert more effort than the traditional method when using different AI systems and<br />applications and the pressures placed on them, which prevent them from using AI in teaching. Additionally, the<br />findings revealed no statistically significant differences in mathematics teachers’ perspectives regarding the<br />importance of using systems and applications of AI in teaching; however, statistically significant differences were<br />found in the math teachers’ challenges when applying AI systems and applications in teaching according to the<br />educational qualifications, especially among math teachers who have masters’ degrees. These results can be used<br />as a foundation for creating guidelines for the future integration of AI education in schools since they report<br />teachers’ experiences utilizing the system and various considerations regarding its implementation</p> Yousef Wardat, Mohammad Tashtoush, Rommel Alali, Shoeb Saleh Copyright (c) 2024 Yousef Wardat, Mohammad Tashtoush, Rommel Alali, Shoeb Saleh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/890 Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Applications for the groups S.U.T.(2,p) where p prime upper than 9 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/831 <p>The problem of finding the cyclic decomposition (c.d.) for the groups ), where prime upper than 9 is determined in this work. Also, we compute the Artin characters (A.ch.) and Artin indicator (A.ind.) for the same groups, we obtain that after computing the conjugacy classes, cyclic subgroups, the ordinary character table (o.ch.ta.) and the rational valued character table for each group.</p> Lemya abd alameer, Mahmood S. Fiadh, Niran Sabah Jasim, Jabbar Abed Eleiwy Copyright (c) 2024 Lemya abd alameer, Mahmood S. Fiadh, Niran Sabah Jasim, Jabbar Abed Eleiwy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/831 Mon, 08 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A New Ridge-Type Estimator for the Gamma regression model https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/812 <p> <span class="fontstyle0">When there is collinearity among the regressors in gamma regression models, we present a new<br />two-parameter ridge estimator in this study. We look into the new estimator's mean squared error characteristics.<br />Additionally, we offer several theorems to contrast the new estimators with the current ones. To compare the<br />estimators under various collinearity designs in terms of mean squared error, we run a Monte Carlo simulation<br />analysis. We also offer a real data application to demonstrate the usefulness of the new estimator. The results from<br />simulations and actual data reveal that the proposed estimator is superior to competing estimators.</span> </p> Ahmed Maher Salih, Zakariya Algamal, Mundher Abdullah Khaleel Copyright (c) 2024 Ahmed Maher Salih, Zakariya Algamal, Mundher Abdullah Khaleel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journal.esj.edu.iq/index.php/IJCM/article/view/812 Mon, 08 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000